Thursday, October 31, 2019

Being Addicted to Crack-Cocaine Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Being Addicted to Crack-Cocaine - Term Paper Example Crack cocaine refers to a freebase type of cocaine that can be taken through smoking. Crack cocaine is a highly powerful and addictive stimulant produced from powdered cocaine through a simple process of conversion. Crack cocaine is strong stimulant to the central nervous system of the body that interferes with the brain and causes excess dopamine to the brain. It has both psychological physiological effects to the body. The Psychological Effects Crack cocaine affects the user’s brain chemistry resulting to feeling of euphoria, excessive confidence, alertness, lack of appetite, addiction, insomnia, excessive energy. The first effect is the release of dopamine, a brain chemical, in large amounts. It is this dopamine which results to euphoria leaving the user experiencing a depressed and low feeling. When smoked it is absorbed faster in the body than when it is injected. The user may take around three days without sleep as they recover from the feeling. When used in a binge, cra ck cocaine leads to increased irritability, paranoia as well as restlessness. According to Woods (2008), these may cause full-blown paranoid psychosis which makes the individual lose sense of reality and experience hallucinations. Excessive use of the substance may result to fornication where the effected user feel or believe they have parasites which crawl under their skin. This is also associated with alcohol withdrawal and high fevers as well as well as hallucinations. The Physiological Effects These include dilated pupils, heart rate, increased temperature, constricted blood vessels and blood pressure. Large amounts increase the user’s feelings of highness, and may cause violent behavior, erratic and bizarre. Large amounts can also lead to muscle twitches, tremors, paranoia and vertigo as well as a toxic reaction in form of amphetamine poisoning. Some users experience restlessness, anxiety and irritation. Under some instances which are rare death might occur on the first use of this substance which is caused by cardiac arrest or seizure accompanied by respiratory arrest. Some users may increase their dosage so as to prolong and increase the euphoric feeling hence addiction. before use after use An example of crack cocaine affected person Operant Conditioning It refers to the process in which results of a certain behavior influences the likely hood of that behavior being repeated. This is a common condition in crack cocaine addiction. Repeated use of crack cocaine acts as reinforce or a reward, and with the association between the reward, cue and response addiction becomes stronger and stronger. This is one of the principles of the operant conditioning. The principle of the immediacy of reinforcement which argues that the faster the user follows a certain behavior the behavior becomes more powerful and it is likely that the user will repeat it. When applied in this condition it means that once the user of crack cocaine follows a certain behavior or f eeling induced by the substance the more likely that they feel take it more and more resulting to addiction. Reference: Woods, S. (2008). Colombia. London: Bradt Travel

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Martin Luther king Essay Example for Free

Martin Luther king Essay It is normal for every person to have dreams about the future. Many people have their own personal dreams while others have dreams for the society. People also tend to have both positive and negative dreams, which they hold. A good leader is one who has positive dream about the people he leads. One of the famous people who have dreams that have to become true is Martin Luther king. This paper gives the analysis of Martin Luther king’s â€Å"I have a dream†. â€Å"I have a dream† speech by Martin Luther king is one of the most wonderful and best speeches that have been given in time immemorial. It was in August 1963 when he moved America by this speech. The speech was full of soaring rhetoric, which demanded justice to be done to all races, and demanding for an integrated society where the black community was recognized. His words proved to be the touchstone in understanding the political and social upheavals that existed in the American society during that time. This gave the country a vocabulary to use when expressing the happenings of that moment. He had one very crucial message that all people regardless of their skin colour were created equally and so they should be treated the same. However, he insisted that that was not the case in America at that moment but he was optimistic that this would happen in the future. He insisted that this would happen in the future in a very powerful and passionate way. His speech was well researched because in the preparation of this speech he studied the Bible, the address by Gettysburg and the declaration of the United States independence. He was able to incorporate all the research in his speech. Looking at his speech it can be described to be a political treatise, poetry, a well improvised and masterfully sermon full of Biblical imagery and language. He used frequent repetition and alliteration in making his points to be clear. Looking at the first half of the speech it shows not an idealized dream of American. It shows a seething Nightmare of racial injustice by the Americans (Murray, 15-20). This is where the speech call for action by insisting that t was the right time for the racial injustices to end. His shows the urgency that is need to undertake the actions. He held that this was the right time to make the real promises of democracy. This was the time for the American to come out of dark and desolate valley full of discrimination and start walking on the path of racial justice. He insisted that that was the right time to make all people have equal opportunities and start living in solid rock of brotherhood. He also encouraged people to make pledge that they would all walk together and never look backwards. He insisted that devotees of civil rights would never be satisfied until the moment when the black man in the American society would be free of horror brutality by the police. He also insisted that they would never rest until when the quality of life of the Negroes had improved and given right to participate in the running of the country and understood the importance of their participation in the public affairs (Dyson, 51-53). In the second half of the speech, the speech depicts the dream of a better, integrated and a future that would be fairer in racial harmony. This is the part of the speech, which has the theme of â€Å"I have a dream. † This phrase is repeated as a way of making his inspirational concepts be understood. He encourages the people that despite of the frustrations and difficulties at that moment he had a dream that all this would end. He held that a day is coming when the country would live according to the true meaning of its creed (Dyson, 51-53). This is when all people from different social classes, for example, children of slaves and those of the slave owners would be able to live as brothers and sit down together. The society that would be full of freedom and justice for all people. This would be a society where people would not be judged by the colour of their skin but would be judged by what they have in their character. He had a dream that the society would be transformed and the glory of the lord would be seem by everybody who would be living in that society (Murray, 15-20). The speech had a very strong message for the white community and hinted revolution. However, he used peaceful words and provided a vision for everybody. At the end of the speech, he had a passage aimed at unification of all people with a theme focusing around freedom. This is where he insisted that time was coming when all the people would sing one song of a sweet land of liberty. All people from all races, religious affiliations would be able to join hands and sing of a free state. There are three factors, which made his speech to have a lot of impact. The remarkable emotion he used in terms of body and voice. The place at which the speech was given in the steps of the memorial of a US president defeated the slavery in the southern states. Another factor is the mood of the day where there was increased slavery among the black people and the time when the whites started feeling guilty of their actions. Work cited Dyson Michael. Debating race with Michael Eric Dyson, New York, Basic Civitas Books, 2007, pg 51- 53. Murray Julie. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, 1st edition, New York, ABDO Group, 2005, pg 15-20.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Relationship Between Medication and Fatigue

Relationship Between Medication and Fatigue Title:-> Fatigue as a bringing factor conducting to medication problems a midst. New graduate registered nurses in a intensive care unit in Sydney western area health service (SWAHS) Aim:-> The goal of study was to analyse and to get deep awareness into the factors affecting medication short coming relies on nurses ability and their thinking of medication problem. Methodology:-> In this section, the researcher will classify and confer the research delineate will be assigned to conduct the study loading to result capability of being measured will be utilized to conduct the study. According to jiroiwong pepper (2011) quantitative research indicates to the scientific and business like check out method of main episode by means of assembling quantifiable knowledge and data to accomplish a research error. The researcher will collect facts relating the connection between fatigue and medication problem for innominate valid nurses as a sample of this study in a form of examine and questionnaire. In quantitative research design class, this study will distinctively assign non experimental approach since the study relevantly accords with its symptomatic that has no idea of operating the fickle relationship between variables. In the words of jiroiwong and pepper (2011) the suitability of non-experimental research object relies on the nature of postulate, If rules are met. Predicament contain theory assaulting to recognize non-accidental statistical relationship between capricious and theory is relating formal relationship yet, it does not allow liberated fickle to be operated. They are many forms of research delineate under non-experimental way that contains inter-relation study draf in peculiar. This draf is more in use when the researcher wants to measure assess and examine relationship or differences between liberated fickle and aligned fickle. Leading to examine, the main aim of study is to recognize and confer the relationship between fatigue and medication problems, where in fatigue and medication problems are two variables of topic of eagerness without controlling fatigue among annalised nurses. Study design:-> Examine draf is described as the methodology utilized in the study that serves a director for the researcher to answer the examine question. This examine’s aim as outlined in Part A, wants to approve best meet and research draf will be detailed phenomenology or the husserlian phenomenology. The object of detailed phenomenology is to animate other’s thinking of lived evidence while accenting the richness, meaning and deepness of experience. A part from this, Schneider et al. 2003 described that by phenomenology meet, values and belief of nurses can be showed and question that are mandatory to nursing can be researched. By examining the nurses we also take data to recognize the forms that conduct in medication supervisional errors. As a result the draf is suitable for the study to examine and describe as trusty as possible, the live experience and thinking of current nurses, who have under the training. Study population and sample:-> In suitable sampling plan is qualitative study is wide to foundation and maintain believability (Honser,2008) samples, also called as informants or partakers are selected particularly for their ability to answer the examine question rather than correspond an overall population (Honser,2008; tuckett,2004) sampling in qualitative examine is usually small and bull’s eye is more about deep or detail of data (tuckett,2004). This study proffer for a sample size of ten to give more accent to validity and asperity of our searchings. The study proposal is to get samples by object is essential and usefulness sampling. Objective samples are those who are chosen based on the set of blurred conon and easy samples are the most availability sample at had (Borbasi, Jackson Langford, 2004) target sample are nurses who have talented MAE. Participants will be pulled from the hospitals of Sydney west area health services. Samples will be approaching from the absolute wards in analysis to the high examples of medication investigations in these canny settings. In a study managed by Tang shev 44, wei Chen (2007) medical wards and all out care units are problems facing places in hospitals. Terrence James Aquino:-> Insertion plans are also used to limit the capable selection biootny by objectively recognizing who can be acknowledged to be while informer accidental planning are those who are not appropriate for the study (houser,2008). Incorporation criteria:-> Both genders registered nurses and nurses have talented MAE. All race and Regular staff or easy access Nurse working for 1 year and above in canny wards of SWAHS Exclusion criteria:-> NUMs Clinical nurse trainer Enrolled nurses who are not clinical endorsed Learner EN’s Recruitment and Retention Strategies:-> The process starts by representing this examine plan to the SWAHS and hospital organization. The object of this to get support and superscription in order to manage this study within the hospital grounds. A letter will be sent which describes the programme, its objective and necessity to the nursing industry. It will also contain the appeal to use hospital dexterity to use hospital ease for interview. With the assurance of conduct support to this study. We apprehend a smooth enlist process and high keeping rate. This will also decrease nurses disquiet relating the bad effect of involving the study. Upon acceptance by SWAHS, mobilization statement describing the nature and aim of study will be sent on the bulletin boards of each target wards. This contains the researcher’s contact numbers to call for those who are keen to participate. We will also point bunged box on the nurses stations for the interested nurses to give their name and contacts in detail. Some, who do not get sufficient associates, we strategy to mobilization period. For keeping of function, contributors will be hearten that only the examiners can avenue recognizing information for confidentiality. Greater impression will be given on description of aim of the study to recruit the compititors to stay! Examine or interview time and place will be pre-planned to nurses comfortability. Data collection:-> The examiners will be the tool for data collection. Because of the secretness of all information. The interviening transcription and data consideration will be managed the examiners. Data entry operator will be employed one time all recognizing knowledge is vanished from the information. The researcher will be organizing recorded interview which according to Roberts and taylor(2002) are the best way to bring it together for philosophy. To reduce the danger of losing data incase of failure of body parts, the recording will be investigated as well as support batternes, tapes and recorder before starting of interview. The interview may be organized in a secret room of local library or within the hospital staff away from the nurses wards to obey the secretness minimize the apprehension. The participants will be given the permission to chose the convenient place, date and time will be planned by them. The students who will be consulted for the interview to judge their participation, describe the nature of the study, give an overview of described consent and give them to acknowledged the study proposal. Each examine/interview will be conducted for one hour and will be increased for half an hour if required. The examiner will take note of the interviewer’s behave and the face expression as well as the body language during the interview. The strategy of data collection is self and not organized in detail so the interviewer can explain the ability in deep and detail. This method utilizes open-ended quest to encourage the participants to describe about their stories and relevant their experience in deep and impressive way. Interview will begin with a long question such as to describe your experience related to medication administration problem. Other question will be conducted relevant on the responses to the first question. Data continues until the examiner accept douse has been accomplished. Gibbs suggests that it is suitable to belay gathering data when it has become duplicacy and no issue are emerging. Data analysis:-> Data estimate is mandatory to abet the researcher together useful information and may also utilized for differenciate all the achieved information, whether it is numerical data of lined experience to further attached to a result. The purpose of the study to recognize relationship between two capricious which fatigue and medication. As a result, the researcher will make use of alternation statistic in order to estimate the data. Person’s will be used to indulge the relationship of independent and independent Flexibility of topic of interest. This correspondence measure is blossomed to conclude whether there is a unsuccess relationship between capricious. The value of the consequence is be token between -1 and +1 which announces the compass of linear relationship b/w two fickle. When value shows -1 this reveals correct negative correlation. While a +1 value shows perfect positive correlation. The result of zero contribute no relationship. Person’s v value be declared as lean linear relationship if value r ranges from .3 to .5 and lastly, if the value r ranges over .5 then the variable shows strong relationship. The information gathered from both methods of IIMS and questionnaire are entered into a computer and arranged to search out the periodicity of the problem. Study conduct and riguor:-> a quantitative research draf must ensure that tool is certain and acceptable certainity and conclusively are two methods to admit quality of the instrument. First main criterion of tools approachment is dependability. The believability of qualitative examine is relies on the comprise of responses collected over time and by asking different question about the same topic to certify the agreement of the information. Believeability of data collection was agreed in this study as only one researcher organized the interview. This study will use test-relate reliability to judge that to measure not alter at two different times. This responsibility test is commonly utilized with physical and technological measures, pencil and paper scale. It is completed through organizing two same measures but in separate time and compares both scores. Afterwards collection of scores will impartially undergo a reliability analysis or a so called analysis coefficient is a tool to quantitatively confer the eminence of a relationship through 0.00 which is not related to + 1.00 which means there is absolute relationship. It reveals durability when the value of coeffi cient is high. After all, if the consequence of two tests has altered value then accidental problems arise. This catch up is suitable as this is applicable only to quantative examine since it gets quantifiable information and the study is about recognizing relationship. Apart from this, the data collection to be utilized is paper scale and pencil that particularly applies to questionnaire in a likert scale format. Cogency is the second major gange of tool. This conclude that the tool alloments what it is assume to extent. To allowance cogency of study, the researcher will engage statistical conclusion validity. Reliability of data was abolished by selecting catch up. Participants to read through their manuscript and to check that the data had fluently and minutely catch their experience. Besides, two other researchers individually coded segments of some manuscript to accord the classification recognized by the interviewer. Ethical issue/consideration of data collection:-> this research section will confer application of conscientious rules and regulations that will be utilized in this study. Three uprights rules will cover during data collection to defend the affection of the participants; namely: informed consent right to intimately and innominateness and secrecy. Informed consent will be deliberated in data collection. It is a consent form that is written in chronicle form that must be given to anticipated sample. This accede is based on the rules of self-determination elucidating all the same information related the study where in the subject respondent may cogitate whether to participate or not in research study without any energy, cheating and any other form of bullying. In addition the description of danger and facility in participating in this study will also be included in a informed consent. Other correct rules that will be applicable in this study is secrecy. It will be differenciate by conferring to respondants that personal recognisation will be kept secret and will not be publicly divulged. The result will only utilized for the purpose of the study not to open any personal information. In application of namelessness, the researcher divides questionnaire that contains some confidentiality such as name and age. Secrecy will be also c laim in this study. Privacy is about their freedom to choose when to share all the knowledge and same information of their evidence. It will be displayed by giving permission the respondent to choose relating the time of their presence to answer the questionnaire. Timeline :-> In order to established the study the researcher must manage a timeframe in a system to organize the study. Gantt chart will be used show the process of study containing the decided starting and ending data. This study will be organized for near about 3 months Which contains sampling selection, data collection and researches, exploratory and final report.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Relativism: The Tangible Theory Essay -- essays research papers

Relativism: The Tangible Theory Since the beginning of rational thought, philosophers have searched for the true meaning of morality. Many theorists have attempted to answer this question with reasoning, in an attempt to find a universal set of rules, or a way to distinguish right from wrong. Some theorists believe that this question is best answered by a single moral standard, while others debate if there can be a single solution. Cultural Relativism explores the idea that there can be no one moral standard that applies to everyone at any given time. The Kantian theory, on the other hand, states that a universal sense of duty, would most benefit humankind. I believe that the Cultural Relativist theory takes into consideration the different cultures that make up the population as a whole. The idea of universal truth in ethics, is a myth. The customs of different societies are all that exist. These customs can not be ‘correct' or ‘ incorrect' for that implies there is an independent standard of right and wrong by which they may be judged. In today's global community people are interacting more and we are now discovering, more then ever, how diverse cultures and people really are. For these reasons the Cultural Relativist theory best defines what morality is, and where it came from. Today all over the world people are communicating in ways never before imagined. Cultural Relativism believes that one set of morals will not adequately adapt to the individuality of all the cultures and subcultures in the world. What this means is that there is no one moral law that fits every situation at every time. There will always be exceptions to the rules. Cultural Relativism leaves the creation of moral and ethical standards to the community. The community then makes moral judgments based on its specific culture, history, and individuality. For these reasons Cultural Relativism helps the community, by letting the community set its own moral standards, rather than impose a set of morals, as the absolutists would suggest. Imposing a set of universal morals would not be able to compensate for all the different cultural differences that exist today. If a universal moral law were to be created, what criteria would be considered? Would one use each communities's religion, customs, laws, educational standards, or cult... ...the nations of the world the set of beliefs which he thought brought the most good and happiness, he would inevitably, after careful considerations of their relative merits, choose that of his own country. Everyone without exception believes his own native customs, and the religion he was brought up in, to be the best." And this discredits the possibility that one such person can come up with a set of morals, or a true way to calculate those morals, because in fact everyone is biased to his or her own moral beliefs. Absolutism is obviously not a feasible solution due to the fact that the cultures of the world are too radically diverse to ever be able to be classified under one set of moral and ethical guidelines. I believe the Utilitarian idea of maximizing the good of the whole is also not feasible, on account of everyone not agreeing on what makes them the most happy. The Kantinisen sense of duty is discredited in the same way, on account of everyone's sense of duty being different. Although there will never be a moral or ethical theory that clearly includes all cultures as morally right, the Relativist theory is by far the most sensible solution offered to us at this time.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Abolition of Death Penalty

ABOLITION OF DEATH PENALTY DEFINITION According to Republic Act No. 7659, death penalty is a penalty for crimes that are â€Å"heinous for being grievous, odious and hateful offenses and which, by reason of their inherent or manifest wickedness, viciousness, atrocity and perversity are repugnant and outrageous to the common standards and norms of decency and morality in a just, civilized and ordered society. † Death penalty is a cruel, futile and dangerous punishment for â€Å"very serious reasons and with due judicial process. According to  Amnesty International, a worldwide movement of people working for internationally recognized human rights; death penalty is the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights. Thus, they worked towards abolishing it in order to â€Å"end the cycle of violence created by a system riddled with economic and racial bias and tainted with human error. † BACKGROUND Next, I would like to present a brief background on death penalty in the Philippines. In 1987, the Philippines made history by becoming the first Asian country in modern times to abolish the death penalty for all crimes.However, six years later, in 1993, the death penalty was reintroduced in the Philippines for 46 different offences. Such of those are murder, rape, parricide, infanticide and qualified bribery, among others. Executions resumed in 1999 until year 2000 when former President Estrada announced a moratorium on executions. This has been continued by current President Arroyo, in practice, throughout her presidency. Now, under her rule, the death penalty is again abolished . STANCE I am in favor of abolishing the death penalty law in the Philippines.Allow me to present my arguments. First, it violates the right to live. Second, it is a very cruel practice. Third, it is anti-poor. Last, death penalty defeats its purpose. ARGUMENTS First, the imposition of death penalty violates a person's right to live. Article III Section 1 of the 1987 Constituti on, otherwise known as  the Bill of Rights, states that â€Å"No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property†¦Ã¢â‚¬  By imposing death penalty, the right of a criminal to live is being violated. Furthermore, it is a known fact that majority of Filipinos are Catholics.As said, we have one of the world's largest Christian populations. According to  the Ten Commandments  of the Church, thou shall not kill. Therefore, nobody is given the right to commit the lives of others. Whether that person is a criminal or not, nobody has the right to play God and take the life that He has given. Filipinos should â€Å"respect and value the sanctity of human life and uphold the virtue and religious doctrines that are expected of us as a dominant Christian nation. † Second, it is a very cruel, inhuman and irreversible practice.It is very cruel and in human because persons are killed. This alone is proof. Once a person is killed, the act cannot be reversed. Third, death penalty is anti-poor. In a country like the Philippines with a very slow, sometimes inefficient, unfair and unjust judicial system, death penalty is simply not viable. Majority of the 1200 people on the death row are poor. Maybe, for some, being there is what they deserve. But for many, it is poverty that brought them there. Not everyone in that row should die.Many are simply there because they ran against some filthy rich and powerful person or they could not afford to get a good lawyer to defend them. A study showed that â€Å"death penalty is anti-poor as the underprivileged who cannot afford the services of competent counsels are oftentimes the ones convicted of death penalty†. â€Å"Studies have shown that the death penalty is disproportionately imposed on the poorest, least educated and most vulnerable members of society. It takes the lives of offenders who might otherwise have been rehabilitated. † Lastly, death penalty does not live up to its purpose.It is not able to serve its purpose which is to prevent crimes and to preserve peace and order. According to the President, in a letter she sent to Senate President Franklin M. Drilon, the imposition of death penalty â€Å"was shown to have not served its principal purpose of effectively deterring the commission of heinous crimes†. Clearly, even with death penalty imposed, the Philippines still continued to project high and rising crime rates in the country. If death penalty is effective, there should have been less crimes but it is quite the contrary.Also, there are no concrete evidence like studies or tests that could prove that the imposition of death penalty really prevents crime thus maintaining peace and order in the country. SUMMARY To cap off this essay, death penalty is the punishment served to those who have committed crimes that are â€Å"heinous for being grievous, odious and hateful offenses and which, by reason of their inherent or manifest wickedness, viciousness, atroc ity and perversity are repugnant and outrageous to the common standards and norms of decency and morality in a just, civilized and ordered society. I am in favor of the abolition of death penalty because first, its imposition violates the right to live. Second, it is a very cruel, inhuman and irreversible act. Third, death penalty is anti-poor. Lastly, death penalty does not serve its purpose of preventing crimes and preserving peace and order. I wish to end this speech by saying that I commend the Congress for passing a legislation calling for the abolition of death penalty. As CBCP puts it, this step has finally led the country â€Å"to move from justice that kills to justice that heals. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ How To Put To Death â€Å"Death Penalty† Death Penalty as we all know is a Legalized form of Killing or murder; it is a legalized â€Å"SIN† because â€Å"to kill or to murder† what we all know is sin and some called an act of killing or murder an â€Å"EVIL act†. Does the implementation of Death Penalty bring life, justice and end heinous crimes in the Philippines? I don’t think so.But the new Vice President of the Philippines Jejomar Binay thinks it so as he utter his desire to bring back death penalty in the Philippine in his outburst emotional response when he attended the wake of the brutally murdered son of attorney Oliver Lozano at media interview. â€Å"Dapat ibalik na ang death penalty†¦Ã¢â‚¬  ( â€Å"It is high time to bring back death penalty†) —-Jejomar Binay Death Penalty has been in the Philippines since the Marcos administration but was only removed at the time of former Philippine president Corazon Aquino and was revived during between the administration of former Philippine presidents Fidel V.Ramos and Joseph Ejercito Estrada and was removed again at the time of the recent former Philippine President Gloria Ma capagal Arroyo because of the mistake and failure of the execution of the First ever Filipino to receive death penalty by lethal injection –Leo Echagaray for the crime of rape which was found eventually that he is not guilty or was innocent of the crime he was accused of and the true rapist is at large and unknown. What a big slap on the Philippines justice system, thus it was removed.It was the roar and pro-death penalty campaigns in the media which influenced unlearned people that Leo Echagaray succumb into untimely death before he was proven innocent; so sad that people at that time were driven by brainless wrath to revenge for the rape victim. But now Vice president Binay, is wishing to bring it back? ; To repeat this â€Å"sad scenario† just to tell to the world that â€Å"we do justice†, WHAT JUSTICE Does he think well when he utters a wish for its revival or is he just emotional overwhelmed at the wake of the brutally murdered son of attorney Oliver Lozan o?There are many bad consequences to the justice system of the Philippines when Death penalty will be rekindled its frightening presence in the Philippines. More injustices will be engendered in the end by mistakenly sentencing to death innocent poor Filipinos and foreigners once they could not proven themselves innocent at the allowed period of presenting evidences and proofs that one is not guilty of the crime being accused of and by the influence of ignorant brainless and heartless wrathful masses.Moreover, if one is financially poor and destitute how can one find a trustworthy attorney that cannot be bought by money, to depend one’s innocence? Truly more innocent lives will be shredded unjustly by this satanic capital punishment. Furthermore, we already know that the financially rich and wealthy prosecuted and accused ones could pervert justice and could buy money-face attorneys, lawyers and judges.Therefore, is this â€Å"death penalty† will stop heinous crimes or will just added more unjust crimes perpetrated by its revival and presence, wherein â€Å"death penalty† is also a heinous crime concealed by the law of legality of the state or country. For death penalty is an act of torturing a person until it dies, which has no difference with the sadistic and psychotic behavior of seemingly soulless criminals who torture first their victims before they eventually kill their victims.Death penalty is NOT HUMANE ACT, rather it is BEASTIAL ACT. Bestial act (death penalty) against bestial act (heinous crimes) will not solve or eliminate crimes within the country or state. Fear is not the answer and will not uproot the main cause of crimes. it just controls but never solves; it just control the symptoms but never cures and heals. JC tortured and received Death Penalty A more humanitarian solution is the key to solve bestial problems like crimes; for every effect (activities) there is a cause (reason for the activity).The cause should be addres sed to solve the problem and not controlling the effects without removing the cause; For the effects will not end if the cause is not removed. Remember Filipinos, your National Hero, Dr. Jose Rizal was a victim of Death penalty or capital punishment which is Firing squad during the Spanish occupation but he is innocent. Remember also Filipinos, your beloved colonial religious deity Jesus Christ was also a victim of Death penalty or capital punishment which is crucifixion but Jesus Christ is innocent.Remember also Filipinos, your beloved fellow Filipinos that have suffered Death Penalty on other countries by hanging are also innocent. Remember Filipinos, the humane in you and don’t let the bestial overtake your human side. Remember Filipinos, to Love and Understand and don’t let Hate and Wrath overtake that Love and understanding within your soul. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ The Death Penalty, Good or Bad ? A few days ago the chief of Police for West Orange, New Jersey spoke out about the negative effects of the death penalty.James Abbott (police chief) stated that â€Å"the death penalty is broken beyond repair and that the extra money spent pursuing executions could be better spent on crime prevention and the needs of victims†. â€Å"I no longer believe that you can fix the death penalty. Six months of study opened my eyes to its shocking reality. I learned that the death penalty throws millions of dollars down the drain — money that I could be putting directly to work fighting crime every day — while dragging victims' families through a long and torturous process that only exacerbates their pain. Now in New Jersey, the death penalty has been outlawed. The death penalty is being replaced with life in prison with no chance of parole. Is this really gonna lower the costs that the death penalty brings about? On top of that, could the money used for the death pena lty really be used to help change people’s attitudes on how they act? Currently, the state of New Jersey has spent over a quarter of a billion dollars on the death penalty in the last 30 years.Would this be enough money to â€Å"rehabilitate a murderer†? Personally I think trying to have a murderer rehabilitated is a waste of time. I know there is the saying that everyone deserves a 2nd chance but in the case of murder, there is no 2nd chance for the murdered. Why should we not take another’s life if he murdered another life? Not only for cost reasons do I think life in prison would be a waste of money but also ethically I think life imprisonment is cruel.I know there are a lot of ethical dilemmas involved but would we as humans be cruel enough to torture another human for the rest of his life in prison? To me, ending someone’s life fast and quick seems more human than dragging out a sentence for however number of years. Also, even if the man or woman was not being tortured in prison, we would be spending money on keeping 1 person alive who murdered another. Where is the justice behind that! _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ There should be justice in this world.There are many forms of justice in this world but in the case of murdering another human being, I think there should only be one final verdict. A murder should be tried then if found guilty put to death. No one can bring back a dead person. A family member who lost a loved one because another person murdered them would want justice for the murder’s crime. Article III. Bill of Rights Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Code-switching: The Effects for Students and Teachers

Introduction In the current global economic climate, the ability to speak English has become an important business tool. English has essentially become the â€Å"universal second language† of the international labour market, and the socio-economic significance of this cannot be overstated (Light, 2007: 9). It is now commonplace for many universities across the world to teach courses in English as well the native language of their country. One of the most apparent consequences of this has been the widespread use of code-switching, where multiple languages are spoken in everyday communication. As such, code-switching is often seen as a social as well as a linguistic medium. This paper will attempt to demonstrate the causes and effects of code-switching in bilingual classes. The Definition of Code-switching Code-switching involves the use of multiple languages, where speakers of additional languages incorporate alternate linguistic elements into their source language. As such, two or more languages may be spoken alternately during a conversation. Chan et al (2009) usefully describe code-switching as â€Å"the intra-sentential switching of two different languages in a spoken utterance† (Chan et al, 2009: 281). The Causes and Effects of Using of Code-switching in an Academic Context The academic use of code-switching involves a more complex and random effect than can be fully explained by a students ability to speak in a certain language. Recent (debatable) research has identified reasons behind the occurrence of code-switching and the extent to which the process of learning has been affected. A large number of situations are considered to be causes of code-switching, one of which is linked to gaps in students’ linguistic ability. As a result, students may engage in code-switching in order to overcome linguistic shortcomings; however this cause may be considered a weak justification. In other cases, a lack of one or more words in either language may lead to code-switching. That is to say, bilinguals make clear that they code-switch when they cannot find the correct expression or term. Often the target language simply does not have the exact word needed in order to maintain a discussion smoothly, and code-switching is necessary. In addition, code-switching can have a positive impact in an academic context. An important teaching skill is the ability to transfer knowledge to students in a clear and efficient manner, and so code-switching can be a useful tool in the classroom for both teachers and students (Bista, 2010: 1). Code-switching may also be used to emphasize a point, or to add more force to a phrase. On a psychological level, learners often code-switch when they feel tired or angry. For example when the speaker is in a good mood, the appropriate word or expression in their second language is easily identified. However if the speaker is distracted in any way, they may find it difficult to grasp the correct word. In a purely linguistic capacity, code-switching may be used to compliment a statement, where it can particularly reinforce an intention or meaning of the speaker. Although sometimes viewed as linguistic incompetence this is not always the case. Code-switching will often occur when the speaker wishes to compensate for a lack of a verbal equivalent in the second language. Baker (2007) describes this well: â€Å"Words or phrases in two languages may not correspond exactly, and the bilingual may switch to one language to express a concept that has no equivalent in the culture of the other language† (Baker, 2007:108). There are also personal and social reasons for code-switching in that one’s choice of words can represent an expression of their personality. Allatson (2007) suggests factors that can lead to code-switching as location, class, gender and age. In addition the relationship between the speakers; the formal or informal nature of the conversation and the social status of the speakers can also be factors (Allatson, 2007: 73). Another social explanation is that speakers tend to code switch to attract attention. In Saudi Arabia, for example, code-switching is often used among teenagers to draw the attention of their colleagues. Furthermore they switch from Arabic to English to show that they are confident about themselves. In general, code-switching effects are widely perceived as negative. Namely, there is a tendency to view code-switching as barrier to learning and as being disruptive to the learning environment. Accordingly, the practice has been considered as a sign of linguistic deficiency. Li (2008) notes that despite code-switching being commonplace in both the speech and writing of multilingual societies (often with English as the second language), it is usually frowned upon by multilingual speakers within these societies. (Li, 2008: 76). In an academic context, studies by Arrifin and Husin (2011) have observed that learners with a greater linguistic ability often see code-switching as and obstacle to becoming fluent in a second language. Their findings indicated that students with a degree of competence in English found it difficult to make progress in an environment of code-switching (Arrifin et al, 2011: 221). Other studies have reached similar conclusions. Bista (2010) conducted a study in the US which found that code-switching not only had a negative impact on the linguistic learning ability of students, but also highlighted lack of ability in the second language as a primary cause of code-switching (Bista, 2010: 1). Others have a different view however, in particular that code-switching may be perceived as ‘linguistic resourcefulness’. Baker (2007) argues that users of code-switching show impressive cognitive, linguistic, and social skills. In his view code-switchers may be preserving the meaning of their original statement by overcoming the lack of a suitable word in the second language (Baker, 2007: 56-57). Surveys of a number of English language students have reported that they view code-switching as having a considerable influence on the learning process. From their perspective, code-switching assists in understanding the more complex linguistic elements of the second language. It may also help in the translation from their first language to the target one. Conclusion It may apparently be concluded that the impression of code-switching as a barrier to learning seems to be the prevalent view amongst both learners and teachers, and that any positive effects of code-switching are not yet widely recognised. As a consequence of this, it would be reasonable to assume that the attitude of both teachers and students towards code-switching may have been somewhat influenced by this common viewpoint. In the near future however, signs are that code-switching may possibly be seen as a tool for learning. In that event, some restrictions on the use of code-switching must be established by teachers in the classroom, and learners should code-switch only when there is an in urgent case. Eventually, it might yet become a beneficial tool for both learners and teachers. References Allatson, P., 2007. Key terms in Latino/a cultural and literary studies, Oxford: Blackwell. Baker, C., 2007. A Parents’ and Teachers’ Guide to Bilingualism, Clevedon: MPG Books. Light, I., 2007. ‘Global Entrepreneurship and Transnationalism’. In Ed. L. Paul Dana. Handbook of Research on Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship: a Co-evolutionary View on Resource Management, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. pp.3-15. Arrifin, K. and M. Susanti Husin, 2011. ‘Code-switching and Code-mixing of English and Bahasa Malaysia in Content-Based Classrooms: Frequency and Attitudes’. The Linguistics Journal, June, pp.220-47. Bista, K., 2010. ‘Factors of Code Switching among Bilingual English Students In the University Classroom: A Survey’. English for Specific Purposes World, Volume 9, pp.1-19. Chan, J. Y. C., H. Cao, P. C. Ching, T. Lee, 2009. ‘Automatic Recognition of Cantonese-English Code-Mixing Speech’. Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processes, September, pp.281-304. Li, D. C. S., 2008. ‘Understanding Mixed Code and Classroom Code-Switching: Myths and Realities’. New Horizons in Education, December, pp.75-87.